| Humoralpathologisches Forschungslabor | Stool test
E1 Examination of PMN-elastase in the stool
PMN-Elastase: PMN-elastase (PolyMorphoNuclear-elastase) is an enzyme which is found in the granule of segment-cored leucocytes. Its physiological function is the intra-cellular degradation of phagocyting materia. Concerning the granulocytical inflammatory reactions in the intestinal tract, PMN-elastase is released and is thereby possible to through analytical examinations.
Normally, PMN-elastase can not at all, or only to a small extent be defined in faeces. Increased PMN-elastase values in faeces indicate more or less extensive inflammatory processes in the intestine. The cause for this can i.a. be enterocolitis of different geneses, Mb Crohn, ulcerous colitis or intestinal cancer.
Normal value: < 0,06 µg/g stool
E2 Examination of alpha-1-antitrypsin in faeces
Alpha-1-antitrypsin is a protein which is mainly synthesized in the liver. The physiological function of this unspecific protease inhibitor is the regulation of inflammatory reactions through unspecific blockage of the enzymes which are released by the leucocytes and macrophages.
Inflammatory and degenerative, but also allergic, enteropathic and neoplastic changes in the intestinal mucosa are associated with an increased number of proteins from blood and lymph in the intestine. This occurs much earlier than an inundation of cells (erythrocytes, leucocytes) which entails a possible negative result of the chemical examination of blood in faeces.
If suspicion on inflammatory intestinal diseases persists, examination of plasma protein in faeces is recommended. The susceptibility of alpha-1-antitrypsin in faeces, as an expression for an occult intestinal bleeding, is much higher than the one of haemoccult test.
While PMN-elastase (E1) and lysozyme markers indicate inflammatory processes, alfa-1-antitrypsin, albumin (E3) and transferrin indicate exudative processes. This difference enables a differentiated therapeutic procedure.
The examination of alpha-1-antitrypsin is quantitative.
In chronic processes it is therefore possible to control and monitor the treatment result. Relapses can quickly be recognized and their degree of seriousness evaluated.
In connection with inflammatory reactions in the intestinal tract including an increased permeability, the release of alpha-1-antitrypsin is consequently increased.
Normal value: < 0,27 mg/g stool
E3 Examination of human serum albumin in stool
With its 50-60 %, human serum albumin constitutes the main part of the proteins in serum. Their function is transportation of specific fatty acids and amino acids, vitamins, calcium, trace elements and degradation of toxic products.
Serum albumin in stool is a sign of plasma loss in the intestine due to increased permeability as in chronic, inflammatory intestinal diseases. Positive findings also appear in colorectal neoplasia and/or by increased permeability in the intestinal mucosa.
Normal value: < 9,0 µg/g stool
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